Once again the time for the PHATS team to leave the Isle of May has come round, and this year the field season has absolutely flown by. As sad as it is to leave, we’ve had an incredibly successful time on the island and collected all the data that we were hoping to gather, which is great as this will be the last breeding season we have to work on before the PHATS project ends in August. I’m already back on the mainland as earlier in the week I brought off all the samples we collected to make sure they were safely transferred to Abertay University without getting defrosted, and the last three members of the team will be coming home tomorrow.
The colony has emptied over the last week and there are hardly any weaned seals left anymore, let alone adults. We did get to see a familiar seal face during December however, as one particular female seal came up beside our house on the island to rear her pup last year, and this year she did exactly the same! Known affectionately as the ‘Lady of the Lake’ due to her habit of going for a swim in the reservoir at the end of Fluke street (where our house is), she is a particularly laid back seal who has successfully raised two pups in that location over the last two years. We don’t know why she decided to come up the road to raise her pup so far away from the other seals, but now she’s been here for two years it would be interesting to see if she continues to return to that spot in the future, or if other female seals followed her example. How breeding seals form new colonies and why some parts of the island are really dense with seals while other parts are empty are all a mystery currently so we can’t really guess what is motivating her to chose such an unusual location to rear her pup. When studying the seals on the island, we often have to look for flipper tags to recognise them, but as grey seals have stable spotty patterns on their fur you can also use that to identify the same individual every year, if you have a picture of them. This is how we know the ‘Lady’ is the same seal, and such photo ID methods are pretty common in the marine mammal world to repeatedly identify individuals in the wild.
The PHATS team will be back out in the field in early January 2018, when we will return to the Isle of May to look for moulting grey seals that are a year or two old to study. We will resume blog updates then, so in the meantime we all wish you Merry Christmas, a Happy New Year and hopefully see you in 2018!
However, one of the few positive things about combating marine litter is that there are lots ways that everyone can make small changes in their lives to make real reductions in the plastic going into our environment. Here are just a few, try them and be part of the solution!
Get a re-usable water bottle (or coffee mug if you drink more of that than water!), and use water fountains to refil it through the day rather than buy bottled water. If there isn’t a water dispenser at your place of work, talk to your bosses to get one installed for everyone to use.
Get re-usable shopping bags to use instead of disposable ones from supermarkets.
Say you don’t need a straw at bars and restuarants.
If you don’t have any use for something you own anymore, try giving it to a charity shop, or making it into something new rather than throwing it to landfill. Coming up with creative ways to re-use things can be lots of fun, as well as saving you money and helping the environment.
If you are out for a walk and see some litter blowing around, pick it up! Then you can dispose of it properly at the next opertunity. Ever piece of trash picked up and taken to a bin is one less piece of garbage that will end up in the sea.
It’s not only litter and plastics that make up the marine debris problem. Fishing gear can also be deadly for marine life, types include:
The links between these negative impacts and microplastic exposure are still being uncovered, however it is thought that some of the problems associated with accumulating microplastics in the body may relate to the chemical pollutants held within the plastics. Several correlations between high microplastic ingestion rates and high concentrations of a variety of pollutants have been found marine species (e.g. these sea birds). However, correlations do not always equate to causality, and there are also studies showing no links between pollutant concentrations in plastic debris and pollutant burden in individuals eating the debris. One thing is sure however, microplastics in the marine environment are not going away anytime soon, and more work is needed to understand the problem and its consequences for marine organisms. The PHATS team that I am part of is working to uncover the physiological affects of persistent organic pollutants (or POPs, e.g. PCBs) on fat tissue from seals, and we need to understand how individuals get exposed to pollutants. Microplastic ingestion may represent an additional, significant route of exposure to these harmful chemicals in addition to those that are eaten when bound to the fatty tissues of prey speices, that have bioaccumulated up the food chain. Hopefully in the coming years, the mechanisms underlying POPs bound to microplastics, and their absorption into the tissues of marine organisms that ingest them, will become clearer.
Our research for the PHATS project on the Isle of May is going really well, and almost all of our study pups are now weaned from their mothers. Watching the pups go from skinny, fluffy newborns to massively fat, sleek weaners in just over two weeks is always a part of our work that fascinates me; it’s incredible that they can put on so much mass in such a short time frame. Soon the weaned pups will start leaving the island to go to sea for the first time, and their large blubber reserves will hopefully tide them over until they can learn how to fish by themselves.
As it’s getting into the late part of the season for the research team here on the island, we’ve also had lots of human comings and goings in the last week. We’ve had a film crew out from the BBC winter watch team, so hopefully footage of the Isle of May seals and some of the science done on the island will be coming to TV soon. Almost half of the research team has also returned back to the mainland, including the PHATS team leader Dr Kimberley Bennett, who has to get back to the University of Abertay to continue her lecturing duties. As the season continues, the team will probably drop to fewer than 4 people, who will stay out to finish the research work and then close up the island for the holiday season. We won’t be gone for long though, as the PHATS team are already planning our return in early January!
The first two weeks of our field season on the Isle of May have been very busy ones, and we’re now well into the research that we need to get done on the island. In the last week the colony hit peak pupping time, which meant there was lots of amazing births to watch on the island. So, in honour of all the little lives I’ve witnessed come into this world over the last 2 weeks, this blog will be about the wonders of seal pregnancies and births. Births and young pups are fascinating to observe, but please keep in mind that all the observations and photographs we take are done under permit and from hides during research on the breeding colonies as part of scientific projects. Please do not approach or disturb seals during autumn, as they may be pregnant or with pups. Mothers may abandon pups if people come too close, and then the pups will starve to death.
Seal pregnancies are very different to human ones, as they can delay implantation of the growing embryo in the womb, so that it stops developing for a certain time period before it implants and the pregnancy continues normally. This enables grey seals to give birth at the same time every year, despite mating when they leave the colony on day 18 and having pregnancies than only last about 9 months. Many species of mammals, especially carnivores, show delayed implantation, or embryonic diapause, and it is widespread in the pinniped species (seals, sea lions and walrus). However, recent research has found some seal species, like the Weddell seal that lives in Antarctica, may not have delayed implantation. New studies to understand the environmental, nutritional and population pressures driving the evolution of delayed implantation in types of seal will hopefully help us figure out why some species have this physiological adaptation and others do not.
Birth and rearing a young infant is always a testing time for a mammalian mother, and in marine mammals, newborn infants face an additional challenge to their wellbeing. Marine mammals typically have high persistent organic pollutant(POP) burdens due to their top trophic positions in the food chain and the bioaccumulation of the POPs in predators. As these substances are lipophilic (they combine with fat tissues in the body, like blubber) this means that infant marine mammals are at risk from the pollutant burden of their mothers. Some transfer of POPs occurs during pregnancy across the placenta, but once the pup or calf is born, mothers have to produce fat rich milk to feed their offspring with. To do this, mothers typically mobilise the fat reserves in their blubber, and as this tissue has high POP concentrations, these go into the milk she’s producing. By having to drink milk with elevated POP concentrations, newborn marine mammals are continuously ingesting proportions of their mother’s pollutant burden up until they wean, which can have serious negative impacts on their immune system and chance at survival. The PHATS team I’m currently working with is trying to uncover more about the physiology underlying the impact POPs have on fat tissue function and an individual’s ability to generate and utilise blubber properly. By using novel tissue culture techniques in wild breeding colony locations (LINK), we’re hoping to provide new insights and develop new methods to investigate physiological problems caused by such man-made changed to the environments.
MEANWHILE I’d like to introduce you to some of our study seals! They are all named after the phonetic alphabet, and we watch them from birth, to weaning and beyond to gather data and samples from them. This means that at any one time, we have white coat pups that are still with their mothers, pups that have just weaned and are moulting their white baby fur (or lanugo) and pups that are well into their 1-4 week post-weaning fast, with their spotty adult fur. Below are a few of our study seals, and I’ll post updates about how they are all doing on the blog every week.
This year the field season has had a rather unconventional start, as for the first week of the breeding season Dr Bennett and I were away in Canada for the 22nd Biennial Marine Mammal Conference (more on this later). So back in mid October we had to do an early provision run to get most of the laboratory gear we need for the 2 month long field season out onto the island. The other field teams working on the seals then arrived while we were still in Canada, and when we finally arrived last week we had to hit the ground running as there were already lots of potential study animals for the PHATS project. Even though we’ve only been on the island for three days, we’ve already found the first five seals for this year’s study cohort, who have duely been named Alpha through to Echo from the phonetic alphabet. We’ll be here until mid december to try and collect all the data we need to finish the PHATS study, as this is the last field season that is planned for the project.
Outside of the lab we’ve set up on the island, the breeding season is in full swing for the grey seals that have come here to give birth and mate. The number of mother-pup pairs is steadily rising and the large males are already starting to battle for position among the females. There aren’t too many weaned pups around yet, but within a few weeks there will be loads all around the edges of the colony as their 18 days with their mothers comes to an end and the females return to sea, leaving their pups to fend for themselves. Every week I’ll write about a different aspect of the breeding colony and the PHATS project for this blog, with updates on how our study seals are doing and what the field team are getting up to. You can check back here or find me on twitter for updates.
MEANWHILE as mentioned above, team leader Dr Bennett and I have been travelling, heading to Halifax, Canada for the 22nd Biennial Marine Mammal Conference to present the findings of the PHATS project so far. It’s always fantastic to get to meet up with fellow marine mammal scientists, hear what discoveries have been made in the last 2 years and show people what you’ve been working on. I also go to take part in a workshop dedicated to a subject that’s become especially important to me, marine mammal endocrinology. It was great to meet all the other people working on the challenging topic of marine mammal hormones, and to hear about the inventive ways people get around working with tricky species like whales out at sea. I’ve had a pretty busy year for conferences in 2017, hopefully we’ll keep finding out new, interesting things from both my PhD on oxytocin and from the PHATS project so we can go to some more next year!
It’s that time of year once again, autumn is here and that means I’m making inventories and packing equipment for the PHATS team’s field season on the Isle of May. We’ll be heading out to the island at the end of October to begin our last data collection season for the project, and we’ll be living on the island and studying the grey seals until mid December. Before we head out though I’ve got a busy month ahead of me, as I’ll be presenting PHATS work, my PhD work on oxytocin and talking to the public about grey seals. But before we get onto where and when I’ll be presenting, I’m quickly going to give a shout out to a new group I’ve been involved with setting up over the last few months, the SOI Early Careers Network.
This grew out of a group of friends from the Scottish Ocean’s Institute (SOI) meeting to help each other practise for presentations, to give feedback on each other’s ideas and to chat and share resources about the various issues early career scientists face. We then decided to open the gatherings up to any early career researcher at the SOI, and the group has grown ever since. We meet at least every week, sometimes more, to discuss anything our members currently need help or advice with. Right now we are having lots of conference poster and talk preparation sessions with the biologging meeting and the marine mammal biennial happening in September and October. We’ve also discussed loads of topics including statistical methods, funding awards and public outreach.
If you are an early careers researcher at the SOI you are very welcome to join us, our meetings aim to address whatever our members feel they currently need, providing a responsive support system with a relaxed, friendly environment. Please visit our new website here to find out more, see when our next meetings are and sign up to the mailing list, or you could come along to our welcome day event on Tuesday 3rd October (next week) to meet some of us and chat about the group and early career life.
I’ll certainly be practising the various presentations I need to give in the coming month at the ECN! I’ve already been to one conference this month, the wonderful meeting of the British Neuroendocrinology Society in Nottingham where I got to present my work on oxytocin and behaviour in seals. Next I’ll be talking to the public about any and all aspects of grey seal life on the Isle of May, during their annual seal weekend. This happens to celebrate the start of the grey seal breeding season, and afterwards the island is then closed to the public for the rest of the year to protect the breeding seals from disturbance.
I’ll then be travelling to the University of Edinburgh to talk about my work on oxytocin and behaviour on the 10th October. I can’t wait to meet everyone at the Centre for Integrative Physiology and hear all about their amazing research on neuroendocrinology, I got to meet a few lab members at the BNS 2017 conference and their studies on modelling oxytocin dynamics are fascinating. Finally I’ll be heading out to Canada towards the end of October to present our PHATS work at the 22nd Biennial Conference on Marine Mammals. Phew, it’s going to be a crazy month! If you’d like to know more about any of my work, feel free to say hi at any of these events, or you can keep up with me on Twitter (@KJRscience).
1st October – Isle of May seal weekend
10th October – 3pm talk at the Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh
22nd-27th October – 22nd Biennial Conference on Marine Mammals, Halifax, Canada
This week has turned out to be a hectic but good one, I’ve returned from the University of Liege just in time for my next paper to be published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The paper comes from the research in my NERC funded PhD with the Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews on the hormone oxytocin and its impacts on social and maternal behaviour, rather than the pollutant research I’m currently doing with the PHATS team. Like much of my work, the study was done with weaned grey seal pups on the Isle of May, and involved giving the seals specially designed doses of oxytocin to see what (if any) social behaviours the hormone affected.
There have been lots of studies that show certain behaviours are linked to oxytocin concentrations (including some of my own grey seal work!), but the problem with correlations is that you have no idea which side of the relationship is driving things. For example, it would be impossible to tell using only correlations whether increased social behaviours are causing high oxytocin levels, or high oxytocin levels are triggering more social behaviours. Understanding causality in such hormone-behaviour relationships is important so you can identify the ‘cause’ and the ‘effect’ within the correlation. It can be difficult to do outside of laboratory settings however, as the only way to test for causality is to either increase the hormone’s concentration in an individual via manipulations or knock out the functionality of the hormone using antagonists. Due to these difficulties, there is only one study (apart from the one I published today) that has ever given oxytocin to wild individuals, and while they did find changes in pro-social behaviours they had no prior knowledge of the natural oxytocin-behaviour systems in their study animals.
In our study we were testing whether oxytocin triggers individuals to stay close to each other, as we know from grey seal mothers that the higher their oxytocin concentrations, the more time they spend close to their pups. We gave oxytocin and saline (control) treatments to weaned grey seals that had never previously met, and recorded their behaviours after the treatments. We found that oxytocin not only triggered individuals that had never met before to spend more time together, but also reduced aggression between the two and the amount the seals investigated each other, an indication of familiarity. This makes our study the first to verify a naturally existing oxytocin-behaviour relationship in wild individuals, which is very exciting. Studies like this have been done in captivity using domestic, laboratory or zoo animals but it’s crucial to study behaviour and physiology in natural settings with wild individuals, as no matter how hard you try you will never truly re-create all the complex aspects of wild environments in a captive setting.
The treatments were all given intravenously (IV), as the more common, intranasal route of oxytocin manipulation was not possible with the weaned seal pups; they can close their nostrils and hold their breath for a long time! The success of this route of administering the manipulation means that other animal species, that may not be suitable for intranasal manipulations, could potentially have similar studies done on them in the future to help us understand more about oxytocin’s important role in bonding and behaviour. We also spent considerable effort designing the oxytocin dose given to the seals to be as low as possible while still having a behavioural affect. Many doses used in the scientific literature are much higher than natural concentrations, and there are concerns that generating high levels in study individuals could trigger behaviours that would never naturally happen, or have unexpected, and unwanted, side effects.
The time has come for the PHATS team to pack up and go home as almost all the grey seals have left the Isle of May and returned to sea. We have all got back to mainland safe and sound, and everyone is looking forward to some well earned rest after almost two months of fieldwork. All of our laboratory equipment and samples were packed up and shipped off the island without incident, and everything is now at our labs at Abertay University and the Sea Mammal Research Unit, ready for analysis in the new year.
There were only nine of our study weaners still on the island during our last survey, and the majority of them are on the edges of the colony ready to go to sea. Oscar is still hanging out in his pool off the south end of the island, and Papa and X-ray have both made it to the bottom of the southern cliffs and are playing and dozing with a bunch of other weaners there. Hopefully they will all find their way out to sea and learn to forage and catch fish in the coming months. Even if they do survive their risky first year, it’s sadly unlikely that we’ll see them anytime soon on the island again. Grey seals usually don’t come back to breed for at least five years if they are female and even longer if they are male. If they do return to the colony however, we’ll be able to identify them from the number on their orange flipper tags, and if you see any seals with tags please do let us know so we can work out which of our study animals you saw.
These kind of mark-recapture methods are used in all sorts of studies on many different animal species, which I was reminded of during the last weaner survey before we left. While searching the southern cliffs I came across a shag with a ring on its leg, which marks it as one of the study individuals the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has captured, ringed and released back into the wild to help collect data on seabird population dynamics and behaviour. If you see a ringed shag (the leg rings can be several different colours, not just yellow with black writing like the one I saw below) please email the sighting information to firstname.lastname@example.org and if you are interested in the project’s work then you can keep track of what is happening through their twitter feed @CEHseabirds. This particular bird was ringed as a chick in 2000 on the Isle of May, which makes her 16 years old and she has raised 26 chicks so far in her life (information courtesy of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology).
The PHATS team will be back out in the field in January 2017, when we will return to the Isle of May to look for moulting grey seals. The majority of individuals will enter the moult later in the year at around March/April time, but there are always some seals that start early. We will resume blog updates then, so in the meantime we all wish you Merry Christmas, a Happy New Year and hopefully see you in 2017!
Thus far in this blog I’ve mostly focused on talking about the grey seal mothers and pups which live on the breeding colony here on the Isle of May. The PHATS project only involves collecting data from mothers and pups at various ages, hence I’ve somewhat ignored the other occupants of the colony up to now. However, the other individuals on the colony show plenty of interesting behvaiours too, so this particular blog is going to be about the male grey seals that live on the Isle of May at this time of year, waiting to try to compete for opertunities to mate with the females.
Male mating tactics in species of pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) tend to depend on how sexually dimorphic (differences in size or external features like horns between males and females) the species is and the type of habitat they breed in. Some pinniped species, such as elephant seals, have males that are much larger than the females of their species. This facilitates establishing a territory on a breeding colony that contains as many females within it as possible, defending it from rival males and keeping lots of females inside. These huge males will fight any other males that intrude in the territory to prevent them from entering and mating with the females within. Other pinniped species that breed on ice in the north and south poles of the world use physical features like breathing holes to define where males establish territories, like Weddell seals in Antarctica. Male Weddell seals are a similar size to their female counterparts and use complex vocal displays underwater to defend their territories around breathing holes rather than physically fighting with other males.
Grey seal males show a variety of mating strategies on and around breeding colonies. Males in this species are not much bigger than the females, so creating and guarding large groups of females to mate with (a harem) is not possible. Some males do establish loosely defined territories across various areas of the breeding colonies, but these do not seem to be anchored to physcial features or resources in the colony. The males that compete to stay within the colony amongst the females are called as tenured males and they typically the largest males on the colony, fasting to hold their position in the colony for as long as they physically can before they must return to sea to feed. However, there are alternative mating strategies that males can use to gain opportunities to access receptive females, including intercepting females that are returning to sea when leaving the breeding colony and mating with females at sea. Some male grey seals do return to sea and engage in shallow and deep diving behaviour during the breeding season, but whether these can be attributed to feeding, displaying to attract mates or aquatic mating with females is not currently know. Therefore there seems to be a variety of mating strategies that individual male grey seals can employ on breeding colonies to gain access to females, and future research will hopefully help us understand which are the most successful and how selection pressures have encouraged the development of the different mating tactics.
The PHATS research project is almost complete as the end of the field season is quickly approaching. We only have two samples left to collect, then we will pack up and head off the island just in time for Christmas! Over half our study weaners have now gone to sea, there are only 13 left on the island. The oldest remaining seal is India at 49 days old, but we still have some fairly young weaners like Eel (not in the phonetic alphabet I know but we always run out of alphabet and have to start giving study weaners name codes like AA, BB, CC… and Eel is EE!) who is only 26 days old and still over 50kg. She could hang around the island for quite a long time with all that blubber mass, we have known weaners to remain on the colony for over a month after weaning.
Sadly, while doing the daily colony survey to find our study weaners I also found a weaner that had plastic wrapped around his neck. I managed to deprive him of his ‘necklace’ and he swam off into a pool without serious harm, but it’s a sad reminder of how abundant marine litter is, and how it can cause deadly problems for marine life around our shores. Please be aware of your litter, whether you are on the coast or anywhere outdoors as many speices of creatures can end up trapped or eating the things we throw away, causing severe health problems that they frequently cannot alleviate by themselves.
MEANWHILE Away from the colony,we had some visitors for the day this week as some people from Scottish Natural Heritage came out to the island to prepare for the field station closing down for the winter. There are people living on the island almost every month of the year as bird researchers come out in the spring and stay studying the birds until early october, then the seal researchers move in until mid December. However, between December and spring there are a few weeks when no one is living and working at the field station so everything had to be cleaned, packed away and locked up against the winter storms. It was nice to see some new faces after 2 months of seclusion and everyone had a great day despite the choppy sea conditions getting to and from the island!
The island has also become noticeably more noisy in the last week as the cliffs have become covered in sea birds returning from offshore early to roost. We currently have lots of guillemots
and fulmars on the cliffs and it is lovely to see some more life on the island, especially now there are so few seals around. With the seals departing, and our project coming to an end this year, we will likely be leaving the island in the next week to head home. Going back to mainland after a few months away from society is always a little strange, but everyone is looking forward to seeing their loved ones (and getting regular showers again!).
Even though it’s december and the vast majority of the seals on the Isle of May breeding colony have already raised their pups and returned to the sea, we are still seeing a few newborn pups from mothers that are late season breeders. Most of the colony is quiet now as the majority of adult females have gone, leaving their weaned pups (weaners) in their 2-3 week post-weaning fast (see this blog for more details about the post-weaning fast in seal pups).
Back at the PHATS lab, things are starting to wind down. We had to ship all the samples we had generated so far from the cell culture experiments off the island this week as we had filled the minus 80 freezer on the island! The tissue, media and blood samples we’ve collected over the last 6 weeks will give us plenty to study back on the mainland in the new year. Our daily surveys of the study weaners have shown that two of our weaners, Charlie and Alpha, have left the island and gone to sea! Charlie was 35 days old when she left the colony, and Alpha was 43 days old. Some of our study weaners don’t seem very keen to go, both Bravo and Delta are 43 days old and still happily playing around on the island! Some of our seals are making their way through the colony and the rocky tidal region of the shore towards sea, like Foxtrot who is 40 days old and is on the southern edge of the island.
MEANWHILE the research team on the island has dropped to just 4 people as half the team left the island this week to return home, the remaining two researchers from the Durham University seal behaviour team and two research assistants from the Sea Mammal Research Unit of St Andrews. We also were lucky enought to be visited by one of the bird researchers from the Center for Ecology and Hydrology again, as they keep track of the ringed sea birds (shags) on the island during the winter. During this visit they caught and ringed a wild short-eared owl and were kind enought to show us before they released her, beautiful!
It’s currently my favourite time of year on grey seal breeding colonies, when the weaned pups (weaners) start to out number the adults on the island. I do enjoy watching the huge variety of behaviour the adults display, from the caring maternal behaviour mothers exhibit to the impressive battles males fight for access to females, but the weaners are without a doubt my favourite. This is because they typically spend several weeks on the island after weaning in a post-weaning fast, where they stay on the breeding colony despite there being no food for them, and they usually spend this time playing and exploring their surroundings. They can be very curious, and some will even come right up to you when you’re hiding in the colony to see what you are, play with youre belongings or even fall asleep on you!
Post weaning fasts are common in Phocid (true seal) seal species around the world, from the huge elephant seals to the two species we get in the UK, grey and harbour seals. No one really knows conclusively why weaners stay on the breeding colony for several weeks after their mothers wean them, although there are lots of theories. Grey seal pups can lose half a kilogram of mass every day they remain on the colony after weaning, and as having large amounts of blubber increases the chances that the pup will survive it’s first year of life, it seems very strange that pups stay on the island rather than go to sea to learn to forage and catch fish. However, there is evidence that during the post weaning fast, pups undergo physiological changes which prepare them for going to sea for the first time, so they can hold their breath and perform deep dives so they can catch fish successfully. In grey seal pups, the amount of oxygen they can store in their blood increases during the post weaning fast due to changes in the volume of blood they have and its components, with increases in substances such as hemoglobin that bind oxygen. The more oxygen a pup can store in it’s blood before it dives, the longer it can hold it’s breath and forage underwater, and in theory the more successful at catching fish it will be.
There are still many unanswered questions about the post weaning fast phocid seal pups go through and what happens once weaners leave the colony for the first time. To try and answer some of these questions, one of the senior scientists (Dr Sean Twiss of Durham University) here on the Isle of May is currently looking for a PhD student to investigate “Patterns of individual variation in post-weaning behvaiour in wild grey seals“, and the project is being co-supervised by my boss, PHATS team leader Dr Kimberley Bennett of Abertay University! The deadline for applicants is the 20th January 2017, and if you are interested, the details of the project and how to apply are found here. Whoever gets the PhD will get to come out to the Isle of May next year and will meet me and the rest of the PHATS team! Matt Carter of Plymouth University, another PhD student that Dr Bennett co-supervises, is also currently investigating the development of foraging behaviour in pups leaving breeding colonies, so hopefully in the coming years we will gain a much better understanding of the factors driving weaner behaviour before and after they go to sea for the first time.
In the lab here on the island the PHATS project is just over halfway to completion this year. As it gets later in the breeding season we are getting more and more study weaners to keep an eye on, although some of the first weaners that we included in our study are approaching the time when they may go to sea for the first time, at about a month of age. Charlie is now 35 days old and much leaner than when she first weaned from her mother 17 days ago, having lost 9.6kg across those 17 days. This seems like a lot, but considering she put on 22.2kg of blubber in the 18 days she was with her mother, she is still large enough to successfully go to sea. Kilo has now fully moulted and has a very distinct pattern of spots that we can identify him from. We also have a new study weaner (Oscar) that has moulted and turned out to be completely black!
MEANWHILE away from the colony, it briefly got a little bit harder to escape from the seals as a female came right up outside our doorstep with her pup for the first time! She has thankfully moved on a little further from the house so we don’t disturb her, but it was a suprise to open the door one morning and find the pair of them staring at us!
Sadly two members of the research team here have had to leave the island in the last week, Dr Twiss and Dr Bennett both had to return to the mainland to resume their teaching duties at their universities. They will be missed, and it marks the beginning of the end of the field season as the majority of the researchers here will also leave in the coming week. The PHATS team will stick it out until mid December, but it’s always sad to see people go!
Finally if you’d like to see Dr Bennett talking about seals or the PHATS project, she will be giving some public presentations in the coming weeks in Scotland:
6pm, Tuesday the 13th December at the D’Arcy Thompson Zoology museum at Dundee University: Public talk on seal biology