Attending Behaviour 2017 and other upcoming conferences

Hear about all the hormone, behaviour and adipose tissue function work I’ve done with seals at any of the three conferences I’m attending this year!

I’m going to Behaviour 2017 in Portugal next week!

Conference information: link

I’m going to be talking about my work on oxytocin and maternal and social behaviour in grey seals on monday afternoon, plus I’m presenting a poster on the development of aggressivness in seal pups on wednesday and thursday.

Symposium talk: Syposium 1 on Monday 31st July at 17:35 – 18:05

The symposium is titled ‘How Social Behaviour can impact individual health and fitness’. It will feature talks looking at how social living can impact on a range of aspects of an individual’s physiology, and the potential fitness costs and benefits associated with them. The talks cover primate species, fish and of course seals in my case!

Poster: Poster 278, Wed + Thurs, 2nd-3rd August 14:00 – 16:00

If you’re going to the conference and would like to find out more about my work it would be great to meet you there!

Please do say hello if you would like to talk to me about my research, my crazy ginger hair usually make me easy to find!

I’m also attending two other conferences this year, one to (hopefully) talk about my oxytocin work and the other to talk about the tissue culture work I’ve done

(TBC) Oxytocin work – 10th – 12th September
British Society for Neuroendocrinology, Nottingham (conference site: link)

Tissue Culture work – 22nd – 27th October
22nd Marine Mammal Biennial, Canada (conference site: link)
“An explant approach to understand adipose tissue function; metabolic profiles of blubber tissue differs between tissue depth, cell culture conditions and energetic state.”

So if you are attending either of these conferences you can catch me there too!

Safe travels!

New Publication – IV oxytocin causes pro-social behaviour in seals

Grey seals on the Isle of May, Scotland. Staying together is important for mother-infant pairs, especially on a dangerous seal colony.

Link to article: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170554

Or read the summary here on this site.

This week has turned out to be a hectic but good one, I’ve returned from the University of Liege just in time for my next paper to be published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The paper comes from the research in my NERC funded PhD with the Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews on the hormone oxytocin and its impacts on social and maternal behaviour, rather than the pollutant research I’m currently doing with the PHATS team. Like much of my work, the study was done with weaned grey seal pups on the Isle of May, and involved giving the seals specially designed doses of oxytocin to see what (if any) social behaviours the hormone affected.

There have been lots of studies that show certain behaviours are linked to oxytocin concentrations (including some of my own grey seal work!), but the problem with correlations is that you have no idea which side of the relationship is driving things. For example, it would be impossible to tell using only correlations whether increased social behaviours are causing high oxytocin levels, or high oxytocin levels are triggering more social behaviours. Understanding causality in such hormone-behaviour relationships is important so you can identify the ‘cause’ and the ‘effect’ within the correlation. It can be difficult to do outside of laboratory settings however, as the only way to test for causality is to either increase the hormone’s concentration in an individual via manipulations or knock out the functionality of the hormone using antagonists. Due to these difficulties, there is only one study (apart from the one I published today) that has ever given oxytocin to wild individuals, and while they did find changes in pro-social behaviours they had no prior knowledge of the natural oxytocin-behaviour systems in their study animals.

We know high oxytocin grey seal mothers stay closer to their pups, but does the hormone cause the behaviour or does being near to their pup for more time cause greater oxytocin release?

In our study we were testing whether oxytocin triggers individuals to stay close to each other, as we know from grey seal mothers that the higher their oxytocin concentrations, the more time they spend close to their pups. We gave oxytocin and saline (control) treatments to weaned grey seals that had never previously met, and recorded their behaviours after the treatments. We found that oxytocin not only triggered individuals that had never met before to spend more time together, but also reduced aggression between the two and the amount the seals investigated each other, an indication of familiarity. This makes our study the first to verify a naturally existing oxytocin-behaviour relationship in wild individuals, which is very exciting. Studies like this have been done in captivity using domestic, laboratory or zoo animals but it’s crucial to study behaviour and physiology in natural settings with wild individuals, as no matter how hard you try you will never truly re-create all the complex aspects of wild environments in a captive setting.

Weaned grey seal pups associating on the Isle of May, Scotland

The treatments were all given intravenously (IV), as the more common, intranasal route of oxytocin manipulation was not possible with the weaned seal pups; they can close their nostrils and hold their breath for a long time! The success of this route of administering the manipulation means that other animal species, that may not be suitable for intranasal manipulations, could potentially have similar studies done on them in the future to help us understand more about oxytocin’s important role in bonding and behaviour. We also spent considerable effort designing the oxytocin dose given to the seals to be as low as possible while still having a behavioural affect. Many doses used in the scientific literature are much higher than natural concentrations, and there are concerns that generating high levels in study individuals could trigger behaviours that would never naturally happen, or have unexpected, and unwanted, side effects.

Weaned grey seal pups having a disagreement on the Isle of May. Reduction of aggression between familiar individuals happens naturally without oxytocin release in seals, but manipulations also trigger this behavioural change with seals that are complete strangers.

Despite the effort we went to in replicating natural oxytocin concentrations as much as possible for our study, the treatments still triggered some behaviours that are not naturally correlated to oxytocin release in seals. Low aggression and reduction of investigative behaviours are indications that seals recognise each other, and naturally occur after several days of living together, independently of oxytocin release. The behavioural changes in our study seals also unexpectedly persisted for several days, long after the dose would have been metabolised and broken down in the bloodstream. These unexpected effects show that we still have a lot to learn about oxytocin’s role in the formation and maintenance of social and parental bonds. If the hormone is going to be used to safely and successfully treat human psychological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and post traumatic stress disorder (and there have already been clinical oxytocin trials for such conditions in human subjects), then more research is needed into the powerful effects oxytocin can have on our behaviour and neurobiology.

Weaned grey seal pup on the Isle of May.